The NASDAQ 100 leaders is a sub-strategy that uses proprietary risk-adjusted momentum to pick the most appropriate 4 NASDAQ 100 stocks. It is part for the Nasdaq 100 hedged strategy where it is combined with a variable hedge.

The model chooses four individual stocks from the NASDAQ 100 stock index. So depending on what stocks are in the NASDAQ 100, the stock rotation formula might include the new ones.

'Total return is the amount of value an investor earns from a security over a specific period, typically one year, when all distributions are reinvested. Total return is expressed as a percentage of the amount invested. For example, a total return of 20% means the security increased by 20% of its original value due to a price increase, distribution of dividends (if a stock), coupons (if a bond) or capital gains (if a fund). Total return is a strong measure of an investment’s overall performance.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The total return, or increase in value over 5 years of NASDAQ 100 Leaders Sub-strategy is 351.8%, which is greater, thus better compared to the benchmark QQQ (227.6%) in the same period.
- Looking at total return, or performance in of 165.1% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to QQQ (118.9%).

'The compound annual growth rate isn't a true return rate, but rather a representational figure. It is essentially a number that describes the rate at which an investment would have grown if it had grown the same rate every year and the profits were reinvested at the end of each year. In reality, this sort of performance is unlikely. However, CAGR can be used to smooth returns so that they may be more easily understood when compared to alternative investments.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark QQQ (26.8%) in the period of the last 5 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 35.2% of NASDAQ 100 Leaders Sub-strategy is higher, thus better.
- Looking at annual performance (CAGR) in of 38.4% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to QQQ (29.9%).

'Volatility is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Volatility measures the risk of a security. It is used in option pricing formula to gauge the fluctuations in the returns of the underlying assets. Volatility indicates the pricing behavior of the security and helps estimate the fluctuations that may happen in a short period of time.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark QQQ (22.2%) in the period of the last 5 years, the 30 days standard deviation of 24.9% of NASDAQ 100 Leaders Sub-strategy is higher, thus worse.
- Looking at historical 30 days volatility in of 29.4% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to QQQ (26%).

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark QQQ (15.8%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside deviation of 17.1% of NASDAQ 100 Leaders Sub-strategy is higher, thus worse.
- Looking at downside volatility in of 20.4% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to QQQ (18.5%).

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the Sharpe Ratio of 1.31 in the last 5 years of NASDAQ 100 Leaders Sub-strategy, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to the benchmark QQQ (1.1)
- Looking at ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) in of 1.22 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to QQQ (1.05).

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The excess return divided by the downside deviation over 5 years of NASDAQ 100 Leaders Sub-strategy is 1.92, which is higher, thus better compared to the benchmark QQQ (1.54) in the same period.
- Looking at downside risk / excess return profile in of 1.76 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to QQQ (1.48).

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the Ulcer Ratio of 5.79 in the last 5 years of NASDAQ 100 Leaders Sub-strategy, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark QQQ (5.56 )
- During the last 3 years, the Ulcer Index is 7.24 , which is higher, thus worse than the value of 6.03 from the benchmark.

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark QQQ (-28.6 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum reduction from previous high of -30.7 days of NASDAQ 100 Leaders Sub-strategy is smaller, thus worse.
- Compared with QQQ (-28.6 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum reduction from previous high of -30.7 days is smaller, thus worse.

'The Maximum Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. It is the length of time the account was in the Max Drawdown. A Max Drawdown measures a retrenchment from when an equity curve reaches a new high. It’s the maximum an account lost during that retrenchment. This method is applied because a valley can’t be measured until a new high occurs. Once the new high is reached, the percentage change from the old high to the bottom of the largest trough is recorded.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The maximum days below previous high over 5 years of NASDAQ 100 Leaders Sub-strategy is 96 days, which is smaller, thus better compared to the benchmark QQQ (154 days) in the same period.
- Compared with QQQ (98 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 96 days is lower, thus better.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark QQQ (26 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the average days under water of 19 days of NASDAQ 100 Leaders Sub-strategy is lower, thus better.
- During the last 3 years, the average days below previous high is 23 days, which is lower, thus better than the value of 24 days from the benchmark.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of NASDAQ 100 Leaders Sub-strategy are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.